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Finland

Finnish Artillery pieces
Guns with recoil system

Used in the Winter War

Part II

 

 (The contents of this page are based on the book "Itsenäisen Suomen Kenttätykit 1918 - 1995"
by Jyri Paulaharju, Published by Military Museum of Finland, 1996")

 

The designation of guns in Finland was, and is, as follows:
- The first number is the Caliber of the gun in millimeters (mm)

- Then the letter that follows identifies the type of the gun
K = cannon
H = howitzer
LK = gun short
VK = mountain gun
VH = mountain howitzer
RK = infantry gun
KH = gun-howitzer
- The last number is the year of development (or when it was accepted in service or some other year used to identify the model)

General information of artillery weapons and shells

 

 

 

75 K 97
75 K 01
75 K 02
75 K 40 Arg
76 K 00
76 K 02
76 LK 10/13 & 13
76 K 22
76 K 23
76 RK 27 & 27-39
76 K 36

  • Light howitzers

105 VH 10
114 H 18
122 H 10 & 122 H 09

  • Heavy howitzers

150 H 06
150 H 14 J
152 H 10
152 H 09-30
152 H 15/17

  • Heavy cannons

105 K 13
105 K 34
105 K 36 (105 KH 36)
107 K 10/13

 

Note:
The characteristics of the guns are with a normal shrapnel (High Explosive) projectile.
The barrel length can vary by different sources

 

Light howitzers

 

Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Max range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

105

12

14.0

304

-5 - +43

7.6

1 080

105 VH 10
(Picture source: "Field guns in Finland 1918-1995", p.91)

This Swedish mountain howitzer was manufactured by Bofors and 4 of them were bought with 4 000 shells. They crossed the border in Tornio on January 9th 1940 and they price was 2,5 million marks (in 1994 currency 3 million marks). The straight carriage was not strong enough to winter use and almost every gun had it's carriage damaged during the war. 3 774 shots were fired.

 

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Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Max range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

114.3

15.55

15.7

345

-5 - +45

6.4 - 7.5

1 370

The English 114 H 18
The gun was photographed in the Artillery Museum in Hämeenlinna, Finland

This 4.5 inch Howitzer Mark II was one of the most effective artillery weapons of WW I. In January 1940 Finland received a donation of 24 howitzers by England. Finland bought from Spain 30 of these guns which arrived in July 1940. In Finland a muzzle break was added and during the Winter War the howitzers fired 13 903 shots.
During the Continuation War 18 of these howitzers were installed in turrets and put on old BT-7m chassis. The result was an ugly assault gun BT-42 which turned out to be a complete fiasco, as the gun lacked AT-capability (during the fight of Viipuri in 1944 a T-34 was hit several times with no effect) .

 

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Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Max range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

121.9

14

22.8

335

-3 - +44.5

7.6

1 331

122 H 10
(Picture source: "Field guns in Finland 1918-1995", p.108)

This Russian howitzer was a license-built version of a French howitzer by Schneider. It used the same ammunition as the 122 H 09, thus the guns had almost identical performance and therefore the basically two different guns counted together. The 122 H 10 and the 122 H 09 were modernized by the soviets and although many of these new new guns were captured during the Winter War, they weren't used. The H 10 and H 09 fired a total of 44 757 shots during the war.

 

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Heavy howitzers

 

Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Max range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

149.1

11.2

41

296

-5 - +43

6.5

2 150

The 150 H 06
The gun was photographed in the Artillery Museum in Hämeenlinna, Finland

This Swedish heavy howitzer was manufactured by Bofors. 12 of these guns were bought in January 1940 and they fired 2 223 shots in the Winter War.

 

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Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Max range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

149.1

12

43

325

-5 - +43

7.2

2 030

150 H 14 J
(Picture source: "Field guns in Finland 1918-1995", p.115)

The 150 H 14 (J)This howitzer was built in Japan under license of Krupp. 12 of these howitzers were captured by the whites during the War of Independence. In February 1940 11 guns were lost to the soviets (1 was luckily under repair in Viipuri) , and 4 502 shots were fired before they were lost. (Note: the gun in the upper picture has just fired)

The gun on the left was photographed in the Artillery Museum in Hämeenlinna, Finland

 

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Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Max range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

152.4

12.5

43.5

335

-1 - +42

8.0

2 245

The 152 H 10
The gun was photographed in the Artillery Museum in Hämeenlinna, Finland

This howitzer was designed by Schneider and license-built by Putilov Arsenal for the Russian Army. 8 workable howitzers were captured during the war of independence and all were used in the Winter War.

 

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Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Max range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

152.4

14

40.6

382

-1 - +37.5

9.5

3 000

The 152 H 09-30
The gun was photographed in the Artillery Museum in Hämeenlinna, Finland

This was the modernized model of the 152 H 09 and numerous changes were made to the gun and carriage. 14 weapons were captured during the Winter War and they fired 3 985 shots against their former owners.

 

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Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Max range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

152.4

12

43.6

443

0 - +42.3

11.2

3 300


The 152 H 15

The 152 H 17The French Schneider Arsenal produced a 152 mm version of it's 155 mm howitzer. The difference between the models 15 and 17 were that they fired different types propellant charges, but they are counted on all lists together. Finland ordered in 1924 four howitzers   (H 15) and a few years later 8 more (H 17) . They fired 5 403 shots during the Winter War.

Both guns were photographed in the Artillery Museum in Hämeenlinna, Finland.

 

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Heavy cannons

 

Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Max range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

105

28

14.9

559

-5 - +37

12.0

2 300

105 K 13
(Picture source: "Field guns in Finland 1918-1995", p.133)

This Schneider Arsenal's gun was manufactured by license in many countries. Finland bought 12 guns from France during the Winter War and they arrived in February 1940.
The Finnish Heavy Artillery Battalion 1 (Raskas Patteristo 1) was armed with these guns.

 

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Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Max range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

105

42

15.3

800

-5 - +42

16.3

3 750


The 105 K 34
The gun was photographed in the Artillery Museum in Hämeenlinna, Finland

This heavy gun by Bofors is internationally known as 105 K 27 (the Germans captured this type of guns from the Netherlands and named them "10,5 cm K 335(h)") . Finland bought 12 during the Winter War and only 4 arrived fast enough to be used. They fired 1 679 shots but all 4 of them suffered barrel damages when unfitting powder was used.

 

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Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Max range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

105

42

15.1

700 - 775

-5 - +45

14.7 - 16

3 840


A front view of the 105 K 36
The gun was photographed in the Artillery Museum in Hämeenlinna, Finland

This picture shows the 152,4 mm barrel on the groundIn 1936, the Finnish Artillery Inspector, General V.P. Nenonen made a proposition that Finland would order a gun from the Bofors, that two barrel options on the same gun mount. The Finnish Defense council approved this, and it was promised by Bofors to be delivered in 1936, but for unknown reasons, the delivery was postponed and arrived to Finland in January 1940. This hybrid (gun-howitzer) gun had the option of having either a 105 mm cannon barrel, or a 152.4 mm howitzer barrel, and in February it was moved to the Taipale sector to strengthen the Finnish coastal fort "Kaarnajoki", where it was used with the 105 mm barrel, and the designation used was 105 K 36. During the Winter War, the lone 105 K 36 fired a couple of hundred shells (I'm still searching for the exact figure).

(As a further note, the gun fired during the Continuation War 731 shells as the 105 mm cannon, and 211 shells as the 152 mm howitzer)

 

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Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Max range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

106.7

28

15.4

496 - 630

-5 - +37

10.5 - 13.6

2 172

107 K 10-13
(Picture source: "Field guns in Finland 1918-1995", p.137)

The 107 K 10This gun was originally designed by Schneider and it was also manufactured in Russia. The gun was later modernized, but Finland never had the newer models. 2 were captured in the civil war and 4 were bought from France, 2 from Poland and 2 from Latvia. A total of 5 379 shots were fired in the Winter War.

The gun on the left was photographed in the Artillery Museum in Hämeenlinna, Finland.

 

Go to

Finnish Artillery pieces, guns with recoil system
Part I

Finnish Artillery pieces, guns without recoil system

Finnish Artillery

Artillery weapons in the Winter War

See also

General information of artillery weapons and shells


For questions about picture copyrights, see 'Sources' page

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