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The Red Army

Soviet artillery pieces

Used in the Winter War

 

(The contents of this page are based on the book "Itsenäisen Suomen Kenttätykit 1918 - 1995"
by Jyri Paulaharju, Published by Military Museum of Finland, 1996")

 

Since no source (that I can get my hands on) is able to give a thorough list of Soviet artillery pieces used in the Winter War, I have decided to include here only artillery types that the Finns managed to capture (except the 76 K 02-30/40 and 152 H 37 which were used by the Red Army but not captured by the Finns).

The designation of guns in Finland was, and is, as follows:
- The first number is the Caliber of the gun in millimeters (mm)

- Then the letter that follows identifies the type of the gun
K = cannon
H = howitzer
LK = gun short
VK = mountain gun
VH = mountain howitzer
RK = infantry gun
KH = gun-howitzer
- The last number is the year of development (or when it was accepted in service or some other year used to identify the model)

Some of the guns have also the official Russian designations in addition to the Finnish ones. If so, an English translation of the Russian designation is included below it. The Russian designations were provided by Andrey Sysa, St.Petersburg

General information of artillery weapons and shells

 

122 K 31

(Note, the stats are with normal shrapnel/HE shells.)

 

Light cannons

 

76 K 02-30
"76-mm polkovaya pushka obr. 1902/30"
76 mm regimental cannon model 1902/30
Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

76.2

30

6.35- 4.82

424 - 625

-6 - +35

3.0 - 10.6

1 320

76 K 02-30, the improved Russian 76 mm cannon model 1902
Photographed in the Artillery Museum in Hämeenlinna, Finland

In the 1930's, the Red Army decided to modernize their large stocks of "Model 02 Putilov"-guns. The soviet artillery industry incorporated new propellants, projectiles and on some guns, new barrels (see below; 76 K 02-30/40). The changes on the carriage allowed more elevation, thereby increasing range.

Finnish forces captured 32 guns of this type during the Winter War.

 

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76 K 02-30/40
"76-mm divizionnaya pushka obr. 1902/30"
76 mm divisional cannon model 1902/30
Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

76.2

40

6.35

680

-3 - +37

13.5

1 350

76 K 02-30/40
(Picture source: "Field guns in Finland 1918-1995", p.71)

Some of the old model 1902 guns received a new barrel, 40 Caliber long. The designer was V.N.Sidorenko and the original type name was "76-mm pushka obr. 1902/30 g L/40". The change increased muzzle velocity and increased range.

The Finns didn't capture any guns of this type during the Winter War (12 were captured during the Continuation War), but it's nearly certain that this type was also used.

 

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Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Max range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

76.2

13.3

6.5

290

-5 - +35

5.5

327

The 76 VK 04 on a naval mount, the short barrel is clearly visible
Photographed in the Artillery Museum in Hämeenlinna, Finland

This mountain gun was produced by Obuhov, and was used in the first time in the Russo-Japan war as horse drawn artillery. The gun had many weak points, for instance low muzzle velocity resulting in short range.

The Finns captured 4 guns in Suomussalmi, and while the picture above is on a naval mount, the captured guns were on field gun mounts.

Note, the weight in action is without the gun shield.

 

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Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

76.2

16.5

4.82 - 6.61

387

-6 - +35

3.0 - 8.1

780

The older, 76 RK 27 model, with the cart wheels

The improved 76 RK 27-30 with the "disc wheels"The soviet artillery industry developed an improved version from the 76 LK 13 gun. There were two infantry gun models. The main difference between the types, were the wheels. The weight of the gun with metal wheels and rubber tires was 902 - 920 kg.

Each Soviet infantry regiment had 6 guns of this type. A total of 54 guns were captured during the Winter War by the Finns, as several soviet regiments were annihilated.

The 76 RK 27 is photographed in the Military Museum in Helsinki, Finland. The 76 RK 27-30 is photographed in the Artillery Museum, in Hämeenlinna, Finland.

 

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76 K 36
"76-mm divizionnaya pushka obr.1936"
76 mm divisional cannon model 1936
Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

76.2

51.1

6.4

688

-5 - +75

3.0 - 13.6

1 620

The 76 K 36
Photographed in the Military Museum in Helsinki, Finland

This gun was to became one of the mainstays of the soviet field artillery regiments during the early days of WWII.

This gun  first saw action against the Japanese in 1938 at the Khasan lake in the Far East.

The Finns captured 37 guns and some were taken into use immediately.

 

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Special

 

76 RekK 35 (76 K/DRP)
"76-mm batal'onnaya dinamo-reaktivnaya pushka Kurchevskogo"
"76 mm battalion dynamo-reactive cannon by Kurchevskiy"
Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Max range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

76.2

30

4.7

?

?

6.5

200

A side view of the 76 K/DRP

During the 30's the Soviet Union produced a family of recoilless guns, which were originally developed to be used as support weapons for paratroopers. Surprisingly little has been written about them in international weapon books. On the Raate-road two of these strange looking guns were captured attached on trucks.

"The gun was designed by L.V. Kurchevskiy in 1930 and entered service in 1932. These recoilless guns were mounted on GAZ-A trucks which became SU-4 self-propelled guns"*

The guns raised immediate international interest and The Illustrated London News wrote about them in April 6th 1940. The guns were extensively test-fired and studied. One of the guns was secretly shipped to Germany after the Winter War, to be thoroughly studied, and it was never returned. The other gun was stored and is now in the Military Museum in Helsinki, Finland.

A rear view of the 76 K/DRP

These pictures of the 76 K/DRP were taken from "The Winter War 60 years" -exhibition in the Military Museum in Helsinki, Finland.

DRP means "dinamo-reaktivnaya pushka" = dynamo-reactive cannon*

* = Information kindly provided by Andrey Sysa, St.Petersburg, Russia

 

 

Light howitzers

 

122 H 09-30 & 122 H 10-30
"122-mm gaubitsa obr.1909/37" and "122-mm gaubitsa obr.1910/37"
"122 mm howitzer model 1909/37" and "122 mm howitzer model 1910/37"
Caliber

Barrel length
 

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation
 

Range

Weight in action
 

mm

cal
cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)
deg (°)

km

kg
kg

121.9

14*
12.8**

23.05

361

-1 - +44.5*
-3 - +44.5**

5.0 - 8.5

1 450*
1 466**


The 122 H 10-30

The 122 H 09-30The Soviet Union started modernizing her 122 mm howitzers on 1937 (therefore the Russia designations of the guns are different than the Finnish ones, as the latter weren't aware of the exact year).

In the H 09-30, a muzzle break was added, the carriage was strengthened as the gun was modified to accept a bigger charge.
The H 10-30 received the same modifications excluding the muzzle break. Both guns were photographed in the Artillery Museum, in Hämeenlinna, Finland.

A total of 35 guns, of both models, were captured during the Winter War. All Finnish 122 H 09 and H 10's were later modified with similar changes.

* = 122 H 09-30 (Russian designation 122 H 09-37)
** = 122 H 10-30 (Russian designation 122 H 10-37)

 

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Heavy howitzers

 

Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

152.4

14

40.6

382

-1 - +37.5

9.5

2 725

The Soviet 152 H 09-30
Photographed in the Artillery Museum in Hämeenlinna, Finland

This gun was a modernized version of the Russian 152 H 09. Numerous changes were made to the gun and carriage in the 1930's.

14 guns were captured by the Finns.

 

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Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

152.4

32.3

48.96

650

-2 - +65

17.23

7 270

The mighty 152 H 37
Photographed in the Artillery Museum in Hämeenlinna, Finland

This Model 1937 (ML-20) Gun-Howitzer was undoubtedly one of the most important soviet heavy artillery pieces throughout World War 2.

The gun was designed by F.F.Petrov, and it was mostly assembled from various existing and reliable parts. The gun was, after some modifications, fitted in the assault guns SU-152 and JSU-152.

Finnish forces didn't capture any gun of this type in the Winter War.

 

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Heavy cannons

 

122 K 31 
"122 mm Cannon-Howitzer A-19 Model 1931/1937"
Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

121.92

46.3

21.7 - 25.0

560 - 788

-4 - +45

14.3 - 20.0

7 100

The long range cannon 122 K 31
Photographed in the Artillery Museum in Hämeenlinna, Finland

This heavy cannon was designed in the Soviet Union, and introduced into service in 1931. The chief designer was S.Shukalov. This heavy cannon was used by High Command artillery units, and so no guns were captured by the Finns in the Winter War.

 

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Super heavy howitzers

 

203 H 31
"203 mm B-4"
Caliber

Barrel length

Shell weight

Muzzle velocity

Elevation

Range

Weight in action

mm

cal

kg

m/s

deg (°)

km

kg

203

25

98 - 100

538 - 607

0 - +60

12.8 - 16

15 800 - 17 700


Photo courtesy of Alexander V. Korovin, St. Petersburg.

This super heavy howitzer was one of the tools, that were used in breaking the defenses of the Finnish Mannerheim Line during the Winter War. There were at least 4 different modifications of this gun made, and it has some special characteristics. It was mounted on a special tractor mount (although it looks a bit like a self propelled howitzer, it wasn't).

The photo on the left is courtesy of Col. Jyri Paulaharju.

 

 

There were also many other guns, especially heavy and super heavy guns, that the Red Army used and more info can be found in the following web site:

www.battlefield.ru/guns/index.html
"Soviet guns 1920 - 1945"

 

See also

General information of artillery weapons and shells

 

Back to

Artillery weapons in the Winter War

 


For questions about picture copyrights, see 'Sources' page

Copyright © 1999 - 2006 Sami H. E. Korhonen
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